Since 1966 – International School on Disarmament and Research on Conflicts – Italian Pugwash Group

Disarmament and arms control Vol II

PAVIA 1968
Edited by Edoardo Amaldi, Carlo Schaerf
ISODARCO Paper 1969


Opening Address
E. Amaldi

Welcoming Address
G. Vaccari

Welcoming Address
A. Bernardi

Introductory Address
C. Schaerf

Address Delivered
M. Makagiansar

Effects of Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War
M. Kalkstein

The Effects of the Use of Nuclear Weapons
V. Emelyanov
      The changes in weaponry and methods of warfare
      The effects of the use of nuclear weapons
      The lessons of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
      Possible consequences of the use of modern nuclear weapons
      Effects of nuclear explosions on cities
      Possible effects of nuclear explosions over several cities
      Possible consequence of nuclear explosions which can take place on the territories of neighboring countries
      The surprise of nuclear attacks and the inevitability retaliation
      Possible consequence of the use of tactical nuclear weapons
      Wars should not be waged again

Chemical and Biological warfare
M. Kalkstein

Peaceful Applications of Nuclear explosives
M. Kalkstein

Anti-Ballistic Missiles
F. Calogero
      Discuss for of ABMs from technical point of view
      The present situation
      Arguments pro and con ABM deployment
      Effect of ABM deployment by the superpowers on third countries

Problems of Inspection and Control of Disarmament Agreement – I
B. T. Feld

Problems of Inspection and Control of Disarmament Agreement – II
B. T. Feld

Problems of A Universal Nuclear Weapons Test-Ban Agreement
B. T. Feld

Inspection and Control – I
J. Moch

Inspection and Control – II
J. Moch

Disarmament, Arms Control and Peacekeeping
L. B. Sohn

Strengthening the Capacity of the United Nations to Make Decisions
Enforcing A Disarmament Treaty
L. B. Sohn
      The Security Council
      The General Assembly

Strengthening the Peacemaking and Peacekeepings Powers of the United Nations
L. B. Shon
      Rule-Making Powers
      International Conflicts
      Enforcement and Peacekeeping

Enforcement of Arms Control and Disarmament Agreements Through Sanctions Against Individuals
L. B. Shon
      Enforcement Through National Channels
      International Enforcement Against Individuals

A Comment to the Problem of Peacekeeping Force of the Security Council
M. Broz
Peace Police
G. Kent
      How Decide
      Who Decides?
      Motivations of the Agency
      Motivations of the Nations
      Constituting and Restricting the Agency
      Revolution and Civil War

A Comment
L. B. Sohn

Peace Keeping Forces
J. Niezing
      Public Opinion, Political Attitudes and Personality Variables
      On the Structure of Polled Opinion: Some Relevant Research Findings
      On the “Nature of Pol Led Opinion”: “World Mindedness”, “Nationalism” and “Conservatism”
      On the Personality Basis of Polled Opinion: Authoritarianism, Acquiescence and Dogmatism as Explanatory Concepts
      A Final Note

History of Disarmament Negotiations
J. Niezing
      Some Sociological Comments

The Middle East Conflict and Some Problems of Peace-Keeping Operations and Disarmament
M. Mushkat
      The Essence of the Conflict
      U. N. Peace-Keeping Operations
      Stopping the Arms Race

Armaments and the American Economy
M. Pivetti

Three Major Kinds of International Relations Simulation and their Applications to Disarmament Processes
D. P. Harrison and J. D. Ben-Dak (Presented by J. D. Ben-Dak)
      Man Simulation
      Man-Machine Simulation
      Machine Simulation
      The Application of Simulation Techniques to the Study of Disarmament Processes
      Concluding Discussion on the Use of Simulation in International Relations

Simulating International Behavior and Disarmament: an Introductory Bibliographic Inventory
J. D. Ben-Dak
      Foundations of the use of play in structuring behavior
      Foundations of the use of game simulate
      The use of simulation in the study of politics
      The use of simulates in teaching and training of international behavior
      Game theory and its application
      Current work in the use of simulation in teaching and research on international behavior
      Simulation of related behavioral systems
      Simulation of disarmament and arms control processes

Social Exchange in Simulation Gaming: Strategic Linkages In Research On Conflict Resolution
J. D. Ben-Dak
      Introduction: Conflict and conflict resolution
      Theoretical frame of reference: Exchange behavior
      Formal social exchange: Zimmel, Thibaut and Kelley
      Interpersonal exchange relationships:  Homans and Blau
      The cultural and comparative exchange: Levi-Strauss, Leach and Parsons
      Simulating gaming as a research technique
      First game: Single Process x societal environment; institutional Level of exchange
      Second game: Single process x intersocietal environment; normative Level of exchange
      Third game: Multi-processes input x societal environment; organizational level of exchange
      Fourth game: Multi-processes input x intersocietal environment; assessment of social exchange feedback