Since 1966 – International School on Disarmament and Research on Conflicts – Italian Pugwash Group

Technology Transfer

CANDRIAI (Trento) 1998

Edited by Dietrich Schroeer, Mirco Elena
Published by Ashgate-Dartmouth (Aldershot – U K), 2000
270 pages
ISBN 075462045X

Contents

List of Tables
Preface by Carlo Schaerf President of ISODARCO
Introduction

Notes on the Contributors

Part I: Technology Interchange Between Military and Civilian Applications

Dual-use Technologies and the Transfer Mechanisms
Jordi Molas-Gallart

National Security and the Internet
Gary Chapman

Defence Diversification in the United Kingdom
Ian S. Goudie

GPS: Military Technology to Consumer Good
Dietrich Schroeer

Nuclear Power in Space: A Dual-use Conflict
Paolo Farinella, Luciano Anselmo and Bruno Bertotti

Science and the Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship
Dimitri Batani and Stefano Atzeni

Part II: Military Technology Transfer to Less-developed Countries

Promoting Non-proliferation: A Chinese View
Dingli Shen

Export Controls and Nuclear Weapons
Patricia Lewis

Control of Smuggling in Nuclear Proliferation
Alexander De Volpi

The Demand Side of CBW Proliferation
Jean Pascal Zanders

Transparency and Verification
Bruce D. Larkin

Part III: Technology Transfer for Development

Technology Transfer for Developing Countries
Carlo Pietrobelli

Nuclear Energy for Development
Gert G. Harigel

Index

Notes on the Contributors

Luciano Anselmo (Italy) is a research physicist at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) in the Spaceflight Dynamics Section of the CNUCE Institute in Pisa. His research has focused on the effects of earth-orbiting space debris. He is co-author of Detriti Spaziale: Un fattore di rischio che incombe sulfuturo delle attività in orbita (‘Space Debris: A Risk Factor for the Future of Orbital Space Activities ‘) (CUEN, Naples, 1999).
 
Stefano Atzeni (Italy) holds a PhD in nuclear engineering. He is a researcher at the Fusion Division of the Frascati Research Centre of ENEA (the Italian National Agency for Energy. New Technology and the Environment). His main scientific interests include the modelling of dense plasmas for inertial confinement fusion. His major publications include a review article on modelling of dense plasmas in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Vol. 29, 1987).
 
Dimitri Batani (Italy) is a researcher at the Physics Department of the University of Milan. He is working on the physics of inertial confinement fusion and on the use of laser-produced plasmas as high-brightness soft X­ ray sources. His work on disarmament has focused on anti-missile defence systems. including the Patriot anti-tactical ballistic missile system.
 
Bruno Bertotti (Italy) is Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Pavia. His research interests include space physics. and he is participating in the Cassini space mission to the Saturnian system. He represents the Italian Space Agency in international organizations dealing with space debris. He is co-author of Detriti Spaziale: Un fattore di rischio che incombe sul futuro delle attività in orbita (‘Space Debris: A Risk Factor for the Future of Orbital Space Activities’) (CUEN, Naples.  1999).
 
Gary Chapman (USA) is Director of the 21 st Century Project at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs of the University of Texas at Austin. He has published extensively in the area of computer-related technology issues, such as Internet-related security matters.
 
Alexander De Volpi (USA) is a physicist at the Argonne National Laboratory in the USA. He has been principal investigator for projects involving arms control. verification, non-proliferation technology and policy for the US Departments of Energy and Defense. He has participated in the joint FAS/NRDC project on nuclear warhead dismantling, and has collaborated with colleagues in Europe and the former Soviet Union on various arms control demonstration projects. He has published Born Secret: The H -Bomb, the Progressive Case, and National Security (New York: Pergamon, 1981).
 
Paolo Farinella (Italy) is a researcher in the Department of Mathematics of the University of Pisa. He has written extensively on both the technical and social problems created by the increasing amounts of space debris in earth orbit.
 
Ian S. Goudie (UK) is Project Director of the Arms Conversion Project for the City of Glasgow. Before that, he worked in the U K defence industry, where he led the GEC-Ferranti Workers’ Diversification Not Dole’ campaign. He has written extensively on the restructuring of the UK defence industry, including co-authoring The Aerospace Industry in Scotland (Glasgow Arms Conversion Project, 1998) with Rob McNulty.
 
Gert G. Harigel (Switzerland) is an Emeritus Senior Physicist at CERN. He is a Founding and Council Member of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility and Secretary/Treasurer of the Geneva International Peace Research Institute.
 
Bruce D. Larkin (USA) is Professor of Politics at the University of Califor­nia at Santa Cruz. He is a specialist in arms control and Chinese foreign policy. He is author of Nuclear Designs: Great Britain, France, and China in the Global Governance of Nuclear Arms (Brunswick, NJ: Transactions, 1996).
 
Patricia Lewis (UK) is Director of United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research in Geneva. She was a consultant to the UK Government during the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty negations, and has written extensively about the verification of arms control and disarmament treaties.
 
Jordi Molas-Gallart (Spain) is an economist and fellow at the Science Policy Research Unit of the University of Sussex, UK.  He has written extensively on defence industrial policy, conversion and diversification strat­egies, and technology policy, including Military Production and Innovation in Spain (Newark, NJ: Gordon & Breach, 1992). Together with Julian Robinson, he recently conducted an assessment of dual technologies in the context of European security and defence for the European Parliament.
 
Carlo Pietrobelli (Italy) is Professor in Development Economics in the Department of Economy and Institutions of the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”. He has written extensively about technology transfer and industrial partnerships for developing countries. He has published Industry, Com­petitiveness and Technological Capabilities in Chile: A New Tiger from Latin America? (London and New York: Macmillan and St Martin’s Press, 1998).
 
Dietrich Schroeer (USA) is Professor of Physics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has taught courses on science and policy and on science, technology and military affairs for many years. He wrote the text­ book Science. Technology and the Nuclear Arms Race (London: Wiley, 1984). and edited the 1996 ISODARCO Proceedings on The Weapons Legacy of the Cold War (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997).
 
Dingli Shen (China) is a physicist by training, with post-doctoral studies on arms control at Princeton University. He is currently Director of the Office of International Programs and Deputy Director of the Center for American Studies at Fudan University in Shanghai. At Fudan University. he launched in 1991 and has since directed China’s first university-based Program on Arms Control and Regional Security. He teaches course and conducts re­ search on international relations, including acting as the chief editor of the yearbook China Development Report. He has helped to initiate the Shanghai Initiative, a four-nation dialogue on global and regional nuclear arms con­trol and disarmament, involving high-level participants from China, India. Pakistan and the USA. I n 1998, he organized the 6th Beijing-ISODARCO Seminar on Arms Control in Shanghai.
 
Jean Pascal Zanders (Belgium) is a research associate at the Swedish International Peace Research Institute. He is the SIPRI Chemical Weapons Project Leader. His publications include contributions to the SIPRI study on The Challenge of Old Chemical M unitions and Toxic Armament Wastes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), and to the Sf PR/ Yearbook 1998: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Luciano Anselmo (Italy) is a research physicist at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) in the Spaceflight Dynamics Section of the CNUCE Institute in Pisa. His research has focused on the effects of earth-orbiting space debris. He is co-author of Detriti Spaziale: Un fattore di rischio che incombe sulfuturo delle attività in orbita (‘Space Debris: A Risk Factor for the Future of Orbital Space Activities ‘) (CUEN, Naples, 1999).
 
Stefano Atzeni (Italy) holds a PhD in nuclear engineering. He is a researcher at the Fusion Division of the Frascati Research Centre of ENEA (the Italian National Agency for Energy. New Technology and the Environment). His main scientific interests include the modelling of dense plasmas for inertial confinement fusion. His major publications include a review article on modelling of dense plasmas in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Vol. 29, 1987).
 
Dimitri Batani (Italy) is a researcher at the Physics Department of the University of Milan. He is working on the physics of inertial confinement fusion and on the use of laser-produced plasmas as high-brightness soft X­ ray sources. His work on disarmament has focused on anti-missile defence systems. including the Patriot anti-tactical ballistic missile system.
 
Bruno Bertotti (Italy) is Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Pavia. His research interests include space physics. and he is participating in the Cassini space mission to the Saturnian system. He represents the Italian Space Agency in international organizations dealing with space debris. He is co-author of Detriti Spaziale: Un fattore di rischio che incombe sul futuro delle attività in orbita (‘Space Debris: A Risk Factor for the Future of Orbital Space Activities’) (CUEN, Naples.  1999).
 
Gary Chapman (USA) is Director of the 21 st Century Project at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs of the University of Texas at Austin. He has published extensively in the area of computer-related technology issues, such as Internet-related security matters.
 
Alexander De Volpi (USA) is a physicist at the Argonne National Laboratory in the USA. He has been principal investigator for projects involving arms control. verification, non-proliferation technology and policy for the US Departments of Energy and Defense. He has participated in the joint FAS/NRDC project on nuclear warhead dismantling, and has collaborated with colleagues in Europe and the former Soviet Union on various arms control demonstration projects. He has published Born Secret: The H -Bomb, the Progressive Case, and National Security (New York: Pergamon, 1981).
 
Paolo Farinella (Italy) is a researcher in the Department of Mathematics of the University of Pisa. He has written extensively on both the technical and social problems created by the increasing amounts of space debris in earth orbit.
 
Ian S. Goudie (UK) is Project Director of the Arms Conversion Project for the City of Glasgow. Before that, he worked in the U K defence industry, where he led the GEC-Ferranti Workers’ Diversification Not Dole’ campaign. He has written extensively on the restructuring of the UK defence industry, including co-authoring The Aerospace Industry in Scotland (Glasgow Arms Conversion Project, 1998) with Rob McNulty.
 
Gert G. Harigel (Switzerland) is an Emeritus Senior Physicist at CERN. He is a Founding and Council Member of the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility and Secretary/Treasurer of the Geneva International Peace Research Institute.
 
Bruce D. Larkin (USA) is Professor of Politics at the University of Califor­nia at Santa Cruz. He is a specialist in arms control and Chinese foreign policy. He is author of Nuclear Designs: Great Britain, France, and China in the Global Governance of Nuclear Arms (Brunswick, NJ: Transactions, 1996).
 
Patricia Lewis (UK) is Director of United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research in Geneva. She was a consultant to the UK Government during the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty negations, and has written extensively about the verification of arms control and disarmament treaties.
 
Jordi Molas-Gallart (Spain) is an economist and fellow at the Science Policy Research Unit of the University of Sussex, UK.  He has written extensively on defence industrial policy, conversion and diversification strat­egies, and technology policy, including Military Production and Innovation in Spain (Newark, NJ: Gordon & Breach, 1992). Together with Julian Robinson, he recently conducted an assessment of dual technologies in the context of European security and defence for the European Parliament.
 
Carlo Pietrobelli (Italy) is Professor in Development Economics in the Department of Economy and Institutions of the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”. He has written extensively about technology transfer and industrial partnerships for developing countries. He has published Industry, Com­petitiveness and Technological Capabilities in Chile: A New Tiger from Latin America? (London and New York: Macmillan and St Martin’s Press, 1998).
 
Dietrich Schroeer (USA) is Professor of Physics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has taught courses on science and policy and on science, technology and military affairs for many years. He wrote the text­ book Science. Technology and the Nuclear Arms Race (London: Wiley, 1984). and edited the 1996 ISODARCO Proceedings on The Weapons Legacy of the Cold War (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997).
 
Dingli Shen (China) is a physicist by training, with post-doctoral studies on arms control at Princeton University. He is currently Director of the Office of International Programs and Deputy Director of the Center for American Studies at Fudan University in Shanghai. At Fudan University. he launched in 1991 and has since directed China’s first university-based Program on Arms Control and Regional Security. He teaches course and conducts re­ search on international relations, including acting as the chief editor of the yearbook China Development Report. He has helped to initiate the Shanghai Initiative, a four-nation dialogue on global and regional nuclear arms con­trol and disarmament, involving high-level participants from China, India. Pakistan and the USA. I n 1998, he organized the 6th Beijing-ISODARCO Seminar on Arms Control in Shanghai.
 
Jean Pascal Zanders (Belgium) is a research associate at the Swedish International Peace Research Institute. He is the SIPRI Chemical Weapons Project Leader. His publications include contributions to the SIPRI study on The Challenge of Old Chemical M unitions and Toxic Armament Wastes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), and to the Sf PR/ Yearbook 1998: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).